A paraphrase is the process of rewriting or retelling something using different words but with the same meaning.
For example, consider these sentences:
A. Hugh Jackman is a citizen of Australia.
B. Hugh Jackman is an Australian.
The wordings of the two sentences are different, but the meaning is the same. This is called a paraphrase.
Consider more examples:
A. Susie is currently studying in the tenth grade.
B. Susie is a tenth-grader.
A. Many people choose to believe in Astrology because it provides them comfort.
B. There are a lot of individuals for whom Astrology is comforting.
A. We can easily contact our friends and relatives using the internet.
B. Internet has allowed us to keep in touch with our loved ones without effort.
Understanding paraphrase is the most basic skill which is tested in the Listening and the Reading section of the IELTS test. Similarly, learning to paraphrase is vital for succeeding in the Writing and the Speaking section.
IELTS Paraphrase: How are texts paraphrased?
Substitution of words with synonyms or other expressions
Most words have synonyms, and most ideas can be expressed using a number of different words and phrases. Therefore, you can paraphrase by replacing all the words in a text with synonym words or phrases with similar meaning.
A. Currently, the destruction of fertile farmlands is alarming.
B. Presently, the degradation of productive agricultural fields is worrying.
A. Some people claim that the government should be in charge of citizens’ health.
B. Several individuals argue that the state must be responsible for public health.
Change in the structure of the sentence
The sequence of words in a sentence may sometimes be changed, but the meaning is retained.
A. The committee discussed the use of recycle bins in the park.
B. The use of recycle bins in the park was discussed by the committee.
In this example, the first sentence, which is in the active voice, was converted into passive voice.
While restructuring a sentence, synonyms can be used to further modify it.
A. The policeman arrested the suspect in front of the crowd.
B. The lawbreaker was apprehended by the cop before a mass of people.
A. The role of state schools in rural communities cannot be stressed enough.
B. We should not forget the contribution made by public schools in the countryside.